Syntheses and characterization of biodiesel from citrus sinensis seed oil

This study was conducted by Veronica Ezekoye, Rita Adinde, David Ezekoye and Anthony Ofomatah of the University of Nigeria, Nigeria on Citrus sinensis seed oil with the goal of synthesizing (producing) biodiesel. Biodiesels are promising source of alternative fuel for global consumption. They are a forms of diesel (liquid) fuel derived (extracted) from plants or animals sources.

In conducting this study, Citrus sinensis seed oil (CSSO) was extracted using Soxhlet extraction method with n-hexane as solvent at 66.0°C. The extracted CSSO was converted into biodiesel using alkali-catalytic-transesterification method at a constant of temperature of 60°C for 60 min.

The oil yield was 34.00% while biodiesel yield was 76.93%. The physicochemical properties of the analysed biodiesel were specific gravity (899), density (900 kg/m3) at 30.0°C, kinematic viscosity (3.79 mm2/s) at 40.0°C, flash point (190.0°C), pour point (−6.0°C), cloud point (−2.0°C), acid value (0.1 mgKOH/g), iodine value (119.05), ash content (0.1%), moisture content (0.1%), calorific value (35,471.45 KJ/kg), sulphur content (0.001), initial/final boiling (200/203°C), Calcium Ca (18.00 mg/kg), Magnesium Mg (1.64 mg/kg), Potassium K (4.33 mg/kg), Sodium Na (0.09 mg/kg) and Phosphorus P (0.11 mg/kg) Gas Chromatograph (GC) was used to determine biodiesel compositions.

Infrared spectroscopy was used for the detection of functional groups and identification of organic compounds. The quality parameters of the biodiesel were found to be within international acceptable ASTM 6751 and EN14214 standards.

In conclusion, the researchers observed that the investigated Citrus sinensis seed (CSS) is a good feedstock for biodiesel production.